22 Developments in molecular physics at such research centers as Bell Labs, Texas Instruments, and Dupont in the 1950s appear mostly to have been due to mastering combinations of doped silicon. See Riordan and Hoddeson, chapters 6 and 7 (which amount to an oral history of Bell Labs) and 10, and the more sober Electronic Genie: The Tangled History of Silicon by Frederick Seitz and Norman G. Einspruch (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois, 1998), chapters 11, 13 and 14.