10 See Lev Manovich, The Language of New Media (Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press, forthcoming). For Manovich, the three “key cultural forms which are shaping cultural interfaces” are cinema, the printed word, and a “general-purpose human-computer interface” (the latter referring to principles and visualizations–like the “desk top”– which involve “direct manipulation of objects on the screen, overlapping windows, iconic representation, and dynamic menus” (n.p.). It is important to note that, despite his emphasis on the primary relation of cinema to digital media, Manovich’s own “little [digital] movies” provide a gloss on and interrogate the cinema as a cultural interface for digital media. See his home page .